Amakuru y’ibinyoma arabica bigacika muri Afurika

Ubushakashatsi bwimbitse bwakozwe na BBC bwasanze abantu bagendera ku mbamutima zabo kurusha gushyira mu gaciro iyo bari guhanahana amakuru ku mbuga za interineti. Bikubiye mu bushakashatsi bwiswe Beyond Fake News, bugamije guhashya amakuru y’ibinyoma. Ubu bushakashatsi buvuga ko ikwirakwira ry’amakuru y’ibinyoma rishobora no gushyira mu kaga amakuru mpamo kubera ko amakuru y’ibinyoma atuma rubanda itera icyizere amakuru y’ukuri.

Mu gusesengura ubutumwa bwo ku mbuga nka WhatsApp na Facebook, ndetse no kubaza amatsinda y’abantu bo muri Nigeria, Kenya no mu Buhinde, aba bashakashatsi bagaragaza ibitera amakuru y’ibinyoma. Ubu bushakashatsi bunadufasha kumva isano iri hagati y’amakuru y’ibinyoma na politiki ku mbuga za interineti. 

Kuki abantu bayobwa n’amakuru y’ibinyoma? 

Ubwo BBC yaganiraga n’amatsinda y’abantu muri Nigeria no muri Kenya, yasanze benshi bakabiriza ubushobozi bwabo bwo gutahura amakuru y’ibinyoma. 

Nubwo bwose benshi bumva ingaruka zo guhanahana amakuru y’ibinyoma, akenshi usanga ibyo babizi mu magambo gusa. Abashakashatsi basanze isano iri hagati y’iyobya mu makuru n’ibintu nko kuyobya mu matora no muri demokarasi bikomereye abantu kubyumva neza.

Itsinda ry’abashakashatsi basanze imbamutima ari zo zigenga abantu iyo bari mu guhanahana amakuru. Umwe mu bakoreweho ubushakashhatsi wo muri Nigeria yagize ati:

« Nyuma yo kureba amakuru, yankoze ku mutima, rero nagombaga kuyasangiza abandi ». 

Abashakashatsi bavuga ko Nigeria na Kenya bifite ibipimo biri hasi ku bijyanye no usobanukirwa amakuru yo ku mbuga za interineti, aho usanga urubuga nka Facebook rushobora gufatwa nka interineti ya bamwe ndetse ibintu byose birushyizweho bishobora gufatwa nk' »ukuri ».

Ariko abaturage bo muri Nigeria no muri Kenya, bitwara neza kurusha abo mu Buhinde ku bijyanye no kwigenzurira ubwabo niba inkuru iteje urujijo yaba ari ukuri, aho babikora bifashishije ibintu bitandukanye nk’imbuga zo gushakisha nka Google cyangwa bakazigenzura babaza abandi bantu baziranye.

Zimwe mu nkuru z’ibinyoma biragoye kuzitahura ugereranyije n’izindi.

Mu gihe abantu bari mu rugero bagenzura inkuru nshya zijyanye na politiki by’umwihariko muri Nigeria, bagenzura gacye iyo ari inkuru ihamya ikintu cyiza kijyanye na bo. 

Nk’urugero, ishobora kuba nk’inkuru ivuga ku bwoko runaka bwo muri Kenya, cyangwa ivuga ku kibazo cy’imiterere ya politiki mu karere ka Niger Delta gakize ku bikomoka kuri peteroli ko muri Nigeria.

Ariko urubyiruko rwita gacye ku moko n’amadini ugereranyije n’abantu bakuze, rero bo babigenderaho gacye iyo bahanahana amakuru y’ibinyoma.

Ni iyihe mpamvu yindi itera abantu guhanahana amakuru y’ibinyoma?

Akenshi bita cyane ku wohereje ayo makuru kurusha kumenya aho yakomotse ku ikubitiro. Bashobora cyane kwizera ko inkuru ari ukuri kubera ko uwayohereje ari umuntu bizera ko yatanga amakuru y’impamo, bitandukanye n' »umuntu upfa gukwirakwiza inkuru gutyo gusa ». 

Guhanahana amakuru binatuma hari agaciro inshuti ziguha. 

Kuba uwa mbere ugejeje inkuru ku bo muri mu itsinda rimwe, kwereka abandi ko utacikanwe uzi aho ibintu bigeze cyangwa gutangiza ikiganiro, bituma abakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga bumva bamerewe neza. 

Rimwe na rimwe, abantu bihutira gukwirakwiza amakuru batazi niba ari ukuri. 

Gusoma biragoye, ariko gukwirakwiza amakuru biroroshye. Abashakashatsi basanze benshi badasoma mu buryo bwimbitse amakuru yo ku mbuga za interineti cyangwa ngo bayasome bashungura bumva icyo ashatse kuvuga.

Kandi benshi bakwirakwiza amakuru bagendeye gusa ku mutwe w’inkuru cyangwa ifoto, batabanje kuyumva neza bo ubwabo. 

Kuri bamwe, bumva ari inshingano yabo nk’abaturage. Bagakwirakwiza amakuru, batitaye ku kuri kwayo, kubera ko bashaka kuburira abandi no kubagezaho amakuru agezweho. 

Umwe mu babarirwa mu macumi bakoreweho ubushakashatsi, yabwiye BBC ati:

« Wenda hari umuntu utari uyazi [amakuru], nkayakwirakwiza kugira ngo hatagira ikintu kiba ku nshuti yanjye ».

Iyi ni inkuru yo mu ruhererekane rw’inkuru za BBC zo guhangana n’iyobya mu makuru n’amakuru y’ibinyoma – ikibazo cyugarije isi giteje ingorane n’uburyo dufatamo isi dutuye. 

Mushatse kubona inkuru zindi kuri iyi ngingo cyangwa mushatse kumenya ibijyanye n’uru ruhererekane rw’inkuru, mwasura urubuga rwa www.bbc.co.uk/fakenews cyangwa mukaba mwareba ibimaze kuranga uyu mwaka muri Afurika bijyanye n’amakuru y’ibinyoma A year in fake news in Africa  . 


Akenshi abakoresha imbuga za interineti bemera bashimitse ko amakuru anigwa cyangwa adakwirakwiza mu buryo bungana, bagashaka kugira uruhare mu kuyakwirakwiza kuri bose.

Abandi bahitamo gusoma amakuru y’imbuga zizwi ko ari iz’amakuru y’ibinyoma kubera ko gusa bumva bibanejeje.

Florence, umwe mu bakoreweho ubushakshatsi muri Kenya, yagize ati:

« Nubwo bwose atari amakuru y’ukuri, jye nikundira amazimwe ».

Ni gute nshobora kumenya amakuru y’ibinyoma? 

Niba utazi niba inkuru runaka ari impamo, urubuga rwa interineti Africa Check ni ahantu heza wo gutangirira ugenzura ukuri kw’iyo nkuru.

Africa Check n’izindi mbuga ziri gushyiraho ikusanyirizo ry’amakuru abantu bakwifashisha mu gukora inkuru mpamo. Ariko igihe inkuru yabereye n’umuvuduko mu kugenzura inkuru y’ibinyoma cyangwa iyobya mu makuru, bishobora kuba imbogamizi. 

Muzirikane ko ibitekerezo byo mu gice cyahariwe ibitekerezo byo mu bitangazamakuru ndetse no kuri Facebook bidashobora kwizerwa iteka, kubera ko ari ahantu amakuru y’ibinyoma agirwaho impaka akanakuririzwa. 

Abashakashatsi basesenguye ibitangazwa ku mbuga zo muri Afurika bavuga ko ubutekamutwe mu bijyanye n’akazi n’amafaranga ari aho bikunze gusangwa. 

Uko ibintu bimeze ubu, abakoresha imbuga za interineti benshi bavuga ko bashingira ku cyo umutima-nama wabo ubabwiye mu kumenya niba inkuru « yumvikana » nk’iy’ukuri, no kuba hari ahandi hantu bashobora gusanga yatangajwe. 

Umugore witwa Mariya wo muri Kenya yagize ati:

« Ndeba ku mitwe y’inkuru. Iyo nsanze ireshya cyane, biba bishoboka ko ari ibinyoma ».

Chijioke wo muri Nigeria we yagize ati:

« Igihe cyose nsomye ikintu ku mbuga za interineti z’abantu ku giti cyabo, ndakigenzura, nkakireba muri Google, nkasoma nk’inkuru ebyiri ». 

Ariko ubu buryo bubiri ntabwo bwonyine bwatuma utagwa mu mutego w’amakuru y’ibinyoma.

Abashakashatsi bakoresheje ingero ebyiri mu kwerekana inkomoko n’uburyo amakuru y’ibinyoma yakwiragiye: 

  • Ubutumwa bwo ku rubuga nkoranyambaga rwa Twitter buvuga ko ishyirahamwe riharanira uburenganzira bw’abahuza ibitsina n’abo bafite igitsina kimwe, mu by’ukuri ritabaho, ryashyigikiye ibikorwa byo kwiyamamaza by’umukuru w’abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi Atiku Abubakar bwaje gutangazwa n’ibinyamakuru bisanzwe muri Nigeria.
  • Ifoto y’imodoka igwa mu mwobo muri Pakistani yakorewe kopi n’umuntu ukoresha urubuga rwa Facebook, avuga ko byabereye i Nairobi
Screengrab of graphic showing how fake news spreads

Kugenzura amakuru bishobora kugorana. Abakora ku rubuga Africa Check bavuga ko biterwa n’ubucye bw’amakuru yo kwizerwa, y’ukuri kandi adafite uruhande abogamiyeho – bisobanuye ko kuyobya mu makuru byoroshye kurushaho.

Ni ayahe makuru y’ibinyoma ubu bushakashatsi bwabonye?

Guhangayika kuri mu gihugu cyangwa ibigambiriwe, akenshi bisangwa mu butumwa bukubiyemo amakuru y’ibinyoma.

Muri Nigeria, aho 19% by’abaturage nta kazi bafite, ubutekamutwe bujyanye n’akazi bwihariye ikigero cya 6.2% cy’inkuru z’ibinyoma zo kuri WhatsApp. 

Hafi 3% by’inkuru z’ibinyoma zikwirakwizwa kuri WhatsApp zijyanye n’iterabwoba n’igisirikare – bihuye neza n’ibirimo guhangayika kw’abaturage kujyanye n’umutekano mucye n’urujijo bitewe n’imitwe y’inyeshyamba igendera ku mahame akaze y’idini ya kisilamu.

Graphic showing break of fake news stories by topic in Nigeria

Ubutekamutwe bushingiye ku mafaranga n’ikoranabuhanga bigira uruhare rungana na kimwe cya gatatu cy’amakuru y’ibinyoma akwirakwizwa mu biganiro byo kuri WhatsApp muri Kenya. Abashakashatsi bavuga ko iyobokamana ryihariye ikigero kiri hafi ya 8% by’amakuru y’ibinyoma.

Graphic showing break of fake news stories by topic in Kenya

Itsinda rya BBC, mu gusesengura amakuru ya Facebook ajyanye no kwamamaza n’ajyanye n’ibyo buri muntu akunda, ryasanze abakoresha uru rubuga rwa Facebook akenshi bananirwa gutandukanya amakuru y’ibinyoma n’amakuru y’ukuri. 

Ikwirakwiza ry’amakuru ayobya rihagaze gute ku mbuga bwite no ku mbuga zihuriweho? 

Igisubizo kuri iki kibazo ni yo ntego ya nyuma igambiriwe n’umushinga Beyond Fake News wa BBC.

Kugeza ubu, uyu mushinga umaze gusesengura amakuru yo mu nkuru ibihumbi 8 zo muri Kenya na Nigeria, usesengura amapaji ibihumbi 3 yo kuri Facebook n’ibyo abantu bakunda kuri uru rubuga, uyu mushinga umaze kandi gukorana ibiganiro byimbitse n’abantu 40 bo muri ibihugu byombi.

Ndetse wanasesenguye ubutumwa burenga ibihumbi 2.

Abakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga bo muri Kenya na Nigeria babwiye BBC ko bemeza ko amakuru ya byacitse n’amakuru y’ibinyoma yandikwa ku mbuga za interineti hagamijwe gusa kuyakoreramo amafaranga.

Imitwe y’inkuru ya byacitse ikoreshwa na bimwe mu bitangazamakuru bisanzwe, ndetse no gutanguranwa kuba aba mbere mu gutangaza inkuru hatabanje kugenzura, biri gutuma bigorana kumenya itangazamakuru ry’ukuri n’amakuru agamije kuyobya. 

Ariko amakuru yo kuri televiziyo, yo agaragara nk’agoye gushyiramo ibinyoma kuko asaba « kugaragaza isura » y’ubara inkuru kandi agateruranwa uburyo burimo ubuhanga bugoye kwigana.

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